About Crete - Lifestyle
The true Cretan people are among the tallest in Europe, which can be
seen in the isolated mountain areas where the population has remained
unchanged by outside influence. Cretans are a proud and independent
people and their behaviour reflects their long history and their
struggles against occupying forces.
Many traditions are preserved in the villages of Crete,
especially in the more isolated ones. Among them are the Cretan wedding
and the Cretan baptism. Both are special celebrations that may continue
for several days. In the west of Crete they are characterized by the
"rizitika tragoudia", which are very old songs, some of Byzantine
origin. Dancing, eating, drinking, and shooting guns into the air, are
all part of the celebrations.
Grape-gathering, wine-making and tsikoudia-making are
activities enjoyed in the autumn every year. Wine-making involves
crushing the grapes in special stone constructions called "patitiria".
This is done by several people taking turns, walking or running in
place on top of the grapes. While recovering from their exercise or
waiting for their turn, the people consume food and wine. Tsikoudia is
a strong local drink made from the remains in the patitiria, after most
of the grape juice has been removed. This is allowed to ferment and
then is distilled. Traditional methods and machinery are still used.
The licensed owner of the still will often take time off his regular
work to fulfil his function as village distiller in the autumn. Very
often this still has been in his family for generations. People who
come to make their tsikoudia often bring food to barbecue on the fire
and the fresh tsikoudia is sampled copiously.
In the villages of Crete, the parents' consent - particularly that of
the father - is necessary for one to get married. The couple thus asks
their parents' consent and blessing. The first step is the "pledge" or
engagement ceremony, which takes place at the house of the bride-to-be
and is blessed by a priest. After that, the marriage contract is drawn
and signed. A few days before the wedding, the quests sent their
"kaniskia" or presents, usually oil, wine, cheese or meat. Before the
ceremony, the trousseau is carried from the house of the bride to the
groom's house. It consists of handwoven or embroidered articles, sheets
and household furnishing.
It is accompanied by relatives and friends in a joyful
parade, to the sounds of lyre, singing and gun fires. The ceremony
includes a parade from the groom's house to the bride's house. There, a
woman sings a mantinada to persuade the family to open the door. The
bell calls the newly-weds to the church. After the ceremony, the couple
goes to the groom's house where his mother feeds the bride with honey
and walnuts and makes a cross at the front door, while the bride pours
honey and breaks a pommerode, to have a sweet, "rose" marriage.
Celebration starts with the couple singing and dancing, drinking and
eating ends in the daylight.
BASKET - WEAVING
In Crete, basket-weaving is part of the local folk tradition.
Agricultural work forced the Cretans to develop the craft of basket-
weaving, in order to make their rural and domestic chores easier. The
secrets of basket- weaving are taught from the old craftsmen to the
young ones. Utilising material from the cretan flora, such as reed,
osier and splinter, basket-weavers create original and pretty designs
which can be admired throughout Crete.
Rural and domestic chores forced the Cretans to make clay jars and
pots. The cretan jags, made of hard material, are known for their
original beautiful design and their resistance to high temperature. As
years progressed, pottery evolved and small items, flower pots, jars
and decorative ornaments were created. The most important pottery
centers are Margarites in Rethymno and Kentri in Ierapetra. The best
-known pottery centre, however, is Thrapsano in Heraklio. Here, one can
find ceramics for every possible use.
Cutlery is part of the cretan folk tradition. The islandĒs disorderly
history forced the locals to fight for their freedom and be constantly
armed. Today, the knife tied around the waist is only part of the
traditional cretan costume. The craft of cutlery is taught from one
generation to the next, with the elderly teaching the youngsters how to
make and decorate knives. The majority of the cretan knives have
elegant designs, curved on the handle which is made of silver or animal
horn. The sharpened steel blade, for safety reasons, is put into a cup
made of wood, leather or silver. A knife with a “mantinada” curved on
its handle, is a beautiful souvenir from Crete.
Cretan women are known for their skill in weaving, as in other crafts.
The old traditional cretan houses were characterised by the loom -
vertical or upright - where women spent a large part of their day. It
was the place where they made the daily clothing of the family,
blankets, towels, rugs, aprons and tablecloths. Although less women are
occupied with weaving, today one can still purchase the famous cretan
woven fabrics,unique samples of fok art, in beautiful colours and
original designs. Many families are occupied entirely with weaving,
from breeding stocks to weaving wool. The materials used are flax,
cotton and silk which are dyed red from the weavers themselves, who
gather for this purpose and teach their craft to the younger ones.
The old wood-curving produced items of religious art: icons,
icon-stands, pulpits, candlesticks and other objects of eastern
influence, still decorating churches. Today, only few wood-carvers are
still to be found, mainly constructing folk musical instruments.
However, in several mountainous regions, talented amateurs create small
works of art (spoons, forks, wooden stamps for impressive designs,
lyres and various other objects).
MUSIC, INSTRUMENTS AND SONGS
The Cretan music tradition has had many influences and is very
different from others. The first samples are “Pirichii”, war songs sung
by giants Kourites, while, in the first post-christian century, song
writer Messodemos lived and wrote cretan music. The most famous cretan
songs are "mantinades", songs accompanied by lyre and lute. The singer
adjusts the lyrics to the circumstance, and mantinades vary from love
songs to satirical, historical, or social content songs. The rhymesters
compete with each other for the best, most succesful verse which will
be greeted with great enthousiasm from the audience. Another important
category of cretan songs includes the historic songs which narrate
facts from the islandĒs disorderly history, praising the cretan heroism
and willingness to fight.
Among the regional songs are the "rizitika", sung in western
Crete. They are thus called, because they originate from the foot or
"roots" (rizes) of Lefka Ori. There are two types of rizitika: the
"table" songs (tragoudia tis tavlas), sung without music instruments at
feasts and dinner parties, and the "songs of the road" (tragoudia tis
stratas), sung by travellers along the way. Unlike mantinades, rizitika
are not improvised, expressing an emotional state, but they are the
result of a long tradition, ever since the ancient years.
The most characteristic music instrument of the cretan
musical tradition is "lyra" (the lyre), a three-string instrument with
a small bow, similar to a fiddle-bow. Cretan lyre-players, self-taught
in their majority, improuse and sing the cretan mantinades, adjusting
the lyrics to the needs of the occasion. The cretan lyre plays along
with the cretan "lagouto" (lute), an eight - string instrument, like a
guitar. Other traditional instruments are the "outi", "askobandoura" -
something like a bag-pipe - and "chabioli", a wind instrument played by
shepherds, alone or attached to askobandoura. These instruments are
taught from one generation to the next, and cretan musicians are taught
from the elderlies the technique to construct the instruments and how
to play music which is found in every aspect of the daily life.
The traditional cretan dances constitute an expression of the
bravery and dynamism of Cretan character and were highly influenced by
the islandĒs disorderly history. The turns of “Siganos” are reminiscent
of TheseusĒ convolutions in the maze. The dancers have their arms
intertwined at shoulder level and take small steps. As the lyre-player
accelerates, the dance becomes bouncing and "Pendozalis", the most
famous cretan dance, begins. Dancers dance in an open circle, move away
from each other and perform many improusations and spectacular jumps.
"Sirtos" or "Chaniotikos" is danced in a different way from town to
town, being a variation to “Sirtos” of mainland Greece. "Sousta" is a
rhythmic, courting dance, danced by men and women facing each other.
Men also dance "Kastrinos" or "Maleviziotis" in open circle. This is
danced at fairs and local events.
LOCAL MEN COSTUME
Although the cretan male costume is not as popular as it was in the
past, in some villages or formal occasions, there are many older men
wearing it. The costume is very impressive and consists of the
characteristic black kerchief with the fringes on the head, the light
coloured woven shirt with the black vest known as “meidanogileko” and
the traditional "vraka" (salvari) trousers, tied around the waist with
a very long (10 m.) silk scarf.
In the winter, the shoulders are covered with a warm cape,
while the feet are protected from the cold with the white boots called
“stivania”. The costume varies from area to area, not only as far as
the head kerchief is concerned - it can be a fez with a navy blue
tassel, known as “sfakiano” - but as to the colour of the belt, too -
it can be black or red. The formal costume is made of higher quality
fabrics than the daily one. Silk is used and the shirt and the cape are
decorated with many embroideries.
LOCAL WOMEN COSTUME
The female traditional costume can be seen today at feasts, cultural
events and laographic museums. The most usual type consists of a kind
of vraka (apomesoroucho), the "sakofoustano" on top and the beautifully
embroidered and decorated apron called "brostopodia". On the head,
there is a kerchief (tsemberi) or, in some places, a little red fez
called "papazi". Women also wear low heel boots called “stivania” or
high heel black shoes.
The costume varies from area to area. The mountainous
mainland areas prefer the variation of Anogia, while the plain and
urban areas prefer “soforia”. Soforia replaces apomesoroucho with a red
skirt, while the shirt is covered with "meidani" or "saltamarka". The
costume of Anogia also includes an embroidered double apron, tied round
the waist, decorating sakofoustano. The formal costume has more
ornaments, gold coins and embroideries on the apron and the kerchief,
than the daily one.